Ⅰ.Vocabulary and Structure
1.We feel it a pity that he didn‘t live up to _____________had been expected of him.
2.A major-party nominee has the critical advantage in the campaign for the presidential election _____________ he has the support from the party-faithful.
3.Workers seldom commit acts of violence, because they can put their aggression into their work, ___________it physical like the work of a smith, or mental like the work of a scientist.
4.I have no idea what‘s standing ___________ accomplishing our goals and objectives.
A.in the way of
B.on the way to
C.by way of
D.in one‘s way of
5.He will not make a ___________ on LaSane‘s side of the conversation.
6.Never before ___________ so rapidly developing as it is today.
A.has our country been
B.our country has been
C.has been our country
D.our country hasn‘t been
7.In some big cities in America, there are three or four elementary schools and secondary schools, ___________.
A.with each within one‘s walking or cycling distance
B.each within one‘s walking or cycling distance
C.it is within one‘s walking or cycling distance
D.with each that is within one‘s walking or cycling distance
8.Basically, Such attitudes amount to a recognition ______ leisure is an
important area of life and a belief leisure can and should be put to good use.
9.This kind of cell phone is______available in any telecommunications shop.
10._____the numbers in employment, the hotel industry was the second largest
industry in this country last year.
A.In line with
B.In terms of
C.In contrast with
D.In accordance with
11. By the end of next year the bridge ______ .
A.is to complete
B.has been completed
C.will be completed
D.will have been completed
12. The traffic was held up for more than thirty minutes,______ caused me to arrive late.
13. There are many sales this season,during which stores will lower their ______ prices.
14. The farming methods have been ______ improved with the invention of the new machine.
15. If the operation ________ carefully prepared,it would not have been successful.
A. was not
B. has not been
C. had not been
D. were no
Eye contact is important, because too little or too much eye contact may cause communication problems. It is important in relationships because it helps to show closeness, attention and influence. 1 with facial expressions, there are no specific rules 2 eye behavior 3 that it is considered rude to stare, especially 4 strangers. It is, 5 , common for two strangers to walk toward each other, 6 eye contact, smile and perhaps even say ―Hi!‖The strangers may immediately look7 and forget that they even had any contact. This type of glance does not mean much; it is simply a way of acknowledging another person‘s 8 . In a conversation too little eye contact may be seen negatively because it 9 lack of interest, inattention and even mistrust. The relationship between mistrust and lack of eye contact is shown directly in the expression, ―Never trust a person who can‘t look you10 the eye.‖
1.A.Like B.As C.Likely D.Together
2.A.governing B.govern C.governed D.being governed
3.A.besides B.beside C.except D.except for
4.A.for B.at C.to D.in
5.A.moreover B.furthermore C.but D.however
6.A.make B.to make C.making D.made
7.A.down B.up C.away D.out
8.A.absent B.present C.absence D.presence
9.A.conveys B.conceals C.conducts D.consists
10.A.to B.in C.at D.out of
Of all the things we eat and drink, water is the most important, Not all people _1___this,but it is quite true. The human body can live without food for a long time, but two 2 three days without water usually 3 death. Many people do not understand how much water the human body 4 ,but many people do not drink enough, 5 in the hot weather. Most people drink when they are 6 but often need more water after exercises.65 to 75 percent of the human 7 is
water .Water is important in several different ways. Most people need about five to seven litres of water every day, but we need not drink this 8 because a lot comes from the food we have.If we don't have enough water, however, we will fell tired and 9 become ill. Do you know what the best 10 is ?It is Cold Water!
1.A. revise B. realize C. solve D. specify
2.A. to B. and C. or D. of
3.A.result in B. take in C. turn in D. drop in
4.A.bears B. approaches C. grinds D. needs
5.A.specifically B. simply C. surprisingly D. especially
6.A.hungry B. sleepy C. thirsty D. greedy
7.A.chest B. body C. head D. stomach
8.A.amount B. number C. quantity D. scale
9.A.must B. ought to C. may D. should
10.A.juice B. tea C. coffee D. drink
The more I see of the Internet, the more enthusiastic I am. We‘re living through a period of dynamic change. America is ahead just now, with over 50 percent of the population on-line; Britain is next, then Scandinavia and Japan, with the rest of Europe lagging surprisingly behind. But it won‘t be long before everyone catches up. In the third world es pecially, the internet will be a revolutionary force that will promote democracy and economic growth.
The lightning speech of American decision-making in today‘s business world is rooted in the
technology. In the 1980s, American companies, desperate to compete with Japanese and German companies, shed their bureaucratic(官僚的) aspects and returned to the knife-edge of the market. Companies began to be run much more aggressively in the interests of shareholders, and that powered the adoption of new technology. The pay of CEOs (首席执行官) was tied to stock-market performance and businessmen got rich in a way they never previously imagined.
On the knife-edge of the market some are going to bleed. One big invention here is ―frictionless selling‖ for cars—buying on-line rather than through a salesman at a car dealership (汽车专卖行).
I just bought my new car this way. I arranged finance and got just what I wanted—color, interior, engine size—in half an hour. That‘s great for me. But there are 25000—most family owned car deal erships in the United States, and in the next century most will die. It‘s a transition that will surely be repeated many times over.
Telecom (电信) costs are falling towards zero, and computer costs aren‘t far behind. The growth of the internet in Africa, A sia and the Far East is putting these tools in everyone‘s hands. And I‘m confident that if people got the chance to connect, they will quickly create wealth and opportunities across seven continents.
1.Why does the author feel more enthusiastic when he sees more of the Internet?
A. Because America is in a leading position in this field.
B. Because he believes that the Internet will change the whole world.
C. Because he is one of the businessmen who got rich in IT industry.
D. Because the Internet will bring democracy to the Third World.
2. American companies shed their bureaucratic practice because _______.
A. that was powered by the use of new technology
B. that was the way businessmen got rich
C. they wanted to tie the salary of their CEOs to stock-market performance
D. the competition with foreign companies was sharp
3. It can be inferred from the second paragraph that _______.
A. the adoption of the Internet helped improve the competing power of American companies
B. American companies were once thrown out of the market by Japanese and German companies
C. American companies competed desperately with foreign companies in car industry
D. many American businessmen were desperate to get rich
4. The author mentions the purchase of his new car and the car dealership to _______.
A. illustrate the advantage of ―frictionless selling‖
B. predict what change the Internet will bring to American daily life
C. illustrate one of the hurting effects of the Internet
D. compare this new way of selling cars with the traditional one
5. The word ―transition‖ in paragraph 3 probably means _______.
Let‘s look at another example of how people‘s communication patterns differ: the way people converse. Some foreigners have observed that when Americans carry on a conversation, it seems as if they are having a Ping-Pong game. One person has the ball and then hits it to the other side of the table. The other player hits the ball back and the game continues. If one person doesn‘t return the ball, then the conversation stops. Each part of the conversation follows this pattern: the greeting and the opening, the discussion of a topic, and the closing and farewell. If either person talks too much, the other may become impatient and feel that he is dominating the conversation. Similarly, if one person doesn‘t say enough or ask enough questions to keep the conver sation going, the conversation stops.
Many North Americans, are impatient with culturally different conversation styles simply because the styles are unfamiliar. For example, to many North Americans it seems that some Latin Americans dominate conversations, or hold the ball too long. Speaking of her co-workers from several Latin American countries, one North American woman said, ―I just find it difficult to cut in. They seem to take such a long time to express themselves. They give you a lot of unnecessary details.‖When she talked with them, she became tense, because she found it so hard to participate. Yet she also noted that when they talked to each other, nobody seemed uncomfortable or left out.
The North American woman didn‘t know how to interrupt the Latin American conversations because North American ways of listening and breaking in are very different. She had been taught to listen politely until the other person finished talking. (Once again, there are gender (性别) differences; it has been observed that men tend to interrupt women more than women interrupt men. )When the North American woman did what was ―natural‖ or ―normal‖for her (i. e. , listen politely without interrupting), she was not comfortable in the conversation with the Latin Americans. The result was that she became more passive in her conversations with her co-workers. The differences between the unspoken rules of conversation of each cultural group interfered with their on-the-job relationship.
1.When North Americans converse together, each one of the group is supposed
A.participate in the talk
B.play Ping-Pong games
C.interrupt the speaker
D.dominate the conversation
2.When North Americans converse with the Latin Americans, the North Americans would
3.To the North Americans, the Latin Americans are_______________.
4.We can infer from this passage that_______________.
A.people from different cultures cannot communicate with each other
B.different conversational styles may affect people‘s relationships
C.men are more talkative than women
D.North Americans‘ conversational habits are better than those of Latin Americans‘
5.The best title for this passage is_______________.
A.Different Conversation Styles
B.Different Conversation Topics
C.Different Conversation Processes
D.Different Conversation Effects
When your parents advise you to ―get an education‖ in order to raise your income, they tell you only half the truth. What they really mean is to get just enough education to provide manpower for your society, but not so much that you prove an embarrassment to your society.
Get a college degree, if possible. With a B. A. , you‘ll have a good start. But now you have to slow down. If you go for a master‘s degree, make sure it is an M. B. A. , and only from a first-rate university. Beyond this, the famous law of diminishing returns (报酬递减率) begins to take effect.
Do you know, for instance, that long distant truck drivers earn more per year than full professors? Yes, the average 1977 salary for those truckers was $ 24, 000, while the full professors managed to earn just $ 23, 030.
A Ph. D. (博士) is the highest degree you can get. Except for a few specialized fields such as physics or chemistry where the degree can quickly be turned to industrial or commercial purposes, if you pursue such a degree in any other field, you will face a dim future. There are more Ph. D. s unemployed or under-employed in this country than in any other part of the world.
If you become a Ph. D. in English or history or political science or languages or—worst of all—in philosophy, you run the risk of becoming overeducated for our national demands. Not for our needs, mind you, but for our demands.
Thousands of Ph. D. s are selling shoes, driving cars, waiting on tables, and endlessly filling out applications month after month. They may also take a job in some high school or second-rate college that pays much less than what the doorkeeper earns.
You can equate (同等看待) the level of income with the level of education only so far. Far enough, that is, to make you useful to the gross national product, but not so far that nobody can turn much of a profit on you.
1.Your parents advise you to ―get an education‖ partly because they want
A.to gain more knowledge
B.to earn more money
C.to get a degree
D.to free yourself from embarrassment
2.From the second paragraph, we can infer that both B. A. and M. B. A.
3.According to the author, _______________.
A.a high degree helps you greatly in finding a satisfactory job
B.a high degree does not necessarily help you to find a satisfactory job
C.the higher degree you get, the more money you can make
D.the higher degree you get, the dimmer future you will face
4.The author would advise you to specialize in the fields of _______________ for a doctor‘s
A.physics or chemistry
B.English or history
5.Which of the following statements is NOT true according to the passage?
A.Well-educated professionals sometimes earn less than truck drivers.
B.It‘s easier for those who specialize in the fields of physics and chemistry to find a job.
D. graduates work as shop assistants, car drivers, waiters or waitresses, because
they cannot find a suitable job.
D.Your Ph. D. degree will make your country embarrassed.
Young girls and women need to be protected from inducements to smoke. Tobacco is a multinational, multi-billion dollar industry. It is also an industry under threat; one quarter of its customers, in the long-term, have been killed by using its product and smoking is declining in many industrialized countries. To maintain profits, tobacco companies need to ensure that at least 2.7 million new smokers, usually young people, start smoking every year. Women have been clearly identified as a key target group for tobacco advertising in both the industrialized and developing worlds. Billions of US dollars each year are spent on promoting this lethal product specifically to women.
This strategy has been highlighted by several tobacco journals which have carried articl es on "targeting the female smokers" and suggesting that retailers should ―look to the ladies‖. Among 20 US magazines that received the most cigarette advertising revenue in 1985, eight were women's magazines. In the same year, a study on the cigarette advertising policies of 53 British women's magazines showed that 64 percent of the magazines accepted cigarette advertising, which represented an average of seven percent of total advertising revenue.
Research in industrialized countries has shown the subtle method used to encourage girls to smoke. The impact of such method is likely to be even greater in developing countries, where young people are generally less knowledgeable about smoking hazards and may be more attracted by glamorous, affluent, desirable images of the female smoker. This is why World Health
Organization (WHO), together with other national and international health agencies, has repeatedly called for national legislation banning all forms of tobacco promotion, and for an appropriate "high pri ce" policy which would slow down the ―enthusiasm‖ of young women for tobacco consumption.
Young girls and women have a right to be informed about the damage that smoking can do to their health. They also need to acquire skills to resist pressure to start smoking or to give it up. Several countries have developed integrated school health education programs which have successfully reduced girls' smoking rates, but this education should not be restricted to what happens in school. There are many other examples of effective cessation programs in the workplace and primary health centers. Unfortunately, many women do not have the opportunity to be involved in such programs, and programs have generally been less successful with women than with men.
In order for women to become, and remain, non-smokers they need support. Environments need to be created which enable them to break free of this health damaging behavior, to make the healthy choices the best choices.
1. In paragraph one, why does the author say that the tobacco industry is under threat?
A. There are fewer smokers in the industrialized world.
B. The government is exerting stricter regulations.
C. Anti-smoking campaigns are on the rise.
D. It is constantly being sued.
2. According to the passage, in order to guarantee profit, the tobacco industry needs to ______.
A. use their advertising money more wisely
B. enrich its varieties to attract people of all ages
C. counteract the influence of anti-smoking campaigns
D. get millions more people to take up smoking every year
3. ―This strategy‖ in paragraph two refers to ______.
A. producing cigarettes appealing to women
B. promoting tobacco specially to women
C. inviting celebrities to endorse cigarettes
D. advertising mainly in best-selling women's magazines
4. What can we learn about young people in developing countries?
A. They can hardly afford cigarettes.
B. They read many cigarette advertisements.
C. They seldom smoke imported cigarettes.
D. They are less informed of smoking hazards.
5. Which of the following is true of the cessation programs mentioned in paragraph four?
A. They have reached their goals sooner than planned.
B. They have operated more successfully on campus.
C. They have produced better results with male smokers.
D. They have gained greater popularity in developing countries.
Any discussion of English conversation, like any English conversation, must begin with The Weather. And in this spirit of observing traditional protocol, I shall quote Dr Johnson's famous comment that "When two English meet, their first talk is of the weather", and point out that this observation is as accurate now as it was over two hundred years ago.
This, however, is the point at which most commentators either stop, or try, and fail, to come up with a convincing explanation for the English ―obsession‖ with the weather. They fail because their premise is mistaken: they assume that our conversations about the weather are conversations about the weather. In other words, they assume that we talk about the weather because we have a keen interest in the subject. Most of them then try to figure out what it is about the English weather that is so fascinating.
Bill Bryson, for example, concludes that the English weather is not at all fascinating, and presumably that our obsession with it is therefore inexplicable: ―To an outsider, the most striking thing about the English weather is that there is not very much of it. All those phenomena that elsewhere give nature an edge of excitement, unpredictability and danger - tornados, monsoons, hailstorms –are almost wholly unknown in the British Isles.‖
Jeremy Paxman takes offence at Bryson's dismissive comments and argues that the English weather is intrinsically fascinating:
Bryson misses the point. The interest is less in the phenomena themselves, but in uncertainty… one of the few things you can say about England with absolute certainty is that it has a lot of weather. It may not include tropical cyclones but life at the edge of an ocean and the edge of a continent means you can never be entirely sure what you're going to get.
My research has convinced me that both Bryson and Paxman are missing the point, which is that our conversations about the weather are not really about the weather at all: English weather-speak is a form of code, evolved to help us overcome our natural reserve and actually talk to each other. Everyone knows, for example, that ―Nice day, isn't it?‖, ―Ooh, isn't it cold?‖; and other variations on the theme are not requests for meteorological data: they are ritual greetings or conversation-starters. In other words, English weather-speak is a form of ―grooming talk‖ - the human equivalent of what is known as ―social grooming‖ among our primate co usins, where they spend hours grooming each other's fur, even when they are perfectly clean, as a means of social bonding.
1. According to the author, most commentators' explanations for the English love for weather talk
2. As is stated in the passage, most commentators try to find out ______.
A. why the English weather is so unique
B. whether the English enjoy their weather
C. why the English are keen on the topic of weather
D. whether the English really talk about weather when they do so
3. In Bill Bryson's opinion, the English obsession with their weather is ______.
4. Disapproving of Bill Bryson's opinion, Jeremy Paxman argues that ______.
A. the English talk about their weather because it is unpredictable
B. the English don't talk about weather as often as the outsiders think
C. the English weather can be as exciting as anywhere else's
D. the English weather talk is merely a form of small talk
5. According to the author, English weather-speak is similar to primates' social grooming in that they are both ______.
A. ways of greeting
B. means of social bonding
C. fascinating topics for anthropologists
D. inexplicable phenomena to outsiders
1.幸存n. s_u_ _r_ _v_ _i_ _v_ _a_ _l_
2. 前景n. p r_ o_ s_ p_ e_ c_ t_
3.学龄前的 a. p_r_ _e_ _s_ _c_ _h_ _o_ _o_ _l_
4. 可爱的 a. l o_ v_ e_ l_ y_
5.简化v. s_i_ _m_ _p_ _l_ _i_ _f_ _y_
6. 预报v. f o_ r_ e_ c_a _s _t
7.趋势,倾向n. t _e_ _n_ _d_ _e_ _n_ _c_ _y_
8. 智慧n. w i_ s_ d_ o_ m_
9.容量;能力n. c_a_ _p_ _a_ _c_ _i_ _t_ _y_
10. 有规律的 a. r e_ g_ u_ l_ a_ r_
11.圆盘;磁盘n. d_i_ _s_ _k_
12. 开关n. s w_ i_ t_ c_ h_
13.现今,现在ad. n_o_ _w_ _a_ _d_ _a_ _y_ _s_
14. 下降v. d e_ c_ l_ i_ n_ e_
15.保证,担保v. g_u_ _a_ _r_ _a_ _n_ _t_ _e_ _e_
16. 有效的 a. e f_ f_ e_ c_ t_ i_ v_ e_
17.预测,预报v. f_o_ _r_ _e_ _c_ _a_ _s_ _t_
18. 建设v. c o_ n_ s_ t_ r_ u_ c_ t_
19.技术员n. t_e_ _c_ _h_ _n_ _i_ _c_ _i_ _a_ _n_
20. 项目n. p r_ o_ j_ e_ c_ t_
21. 典型的a. t y_ p_ i_ c_ a_ l_
22. 背景n. ba_ c_ k_ g_ r_ o_u _ n_ d_
23. 绝对的a. a b_ s_ o_ l_ u_ t_ e_ l_ y_
1.His wife would rather they __didn't talk______ (not, talk) about the matter any more.
2.The earth is one of the nine planets which __ revolve s_____ (revolve) round the sun.
3.The presidential candidates in the U. S. _____________ (concern) with winning the states
which have the largest population.
4.Only by keeping down costs will America maintain its _____________ (compete)
advantage over other countries.
5.The robots used in nuclear plants to handle the radioactive materials prevent human
personnel from ___________(expose) to radiation.
6.He has decided to have a look at the house and see if it might be worth _____________
7.It is self-esteem that makes it possible _____________ (cope) with the everyday problems
of growing up.
8.Experts found in an experiment that improved self-control and enhanced creative thinking
ability ___________(result) from daydreaming.
9.The nearer a society _____________ (approximate) to zero population growth, the older
its population is likely to be.
10.A number of difficulties _____________ (arise) since we began to work on the new
11. When the bomb______ (explode), many people were seriously wounded.
12. The ____ (dense) fog kept the travelers from finding the correct direction.
13. If you want to improve your English, you must have a solid ______ (base).
Ⅵ.Translation from Chinese into English
1. 收缩的过程如此强烈,以至于形成了黑洞 。
2. 已经采取了新措施来帮助保护家佣 。
4. 我们接触的人都有可能影响我们的态度 。
Ⅶ.Translation from English into Chinese
Shy people are likely to be passive and easily influenced by other. They are very sensitive t criticism. They also find it difficult to be pleased by praises because they believe they are unworthy of them. A shy person may respond to a praise with a statement like this:―You‘re saying that to make me feel good. I know it‘s not me.‖It is clear that, while self-awareness is a good quality. overdoing it is harmful.
Can shyness be completely gotten rid of ,or at least reduced? Fortunately ,people can overcome shyness with determined and patient effort in building self-confidence.
‗ This is for you,' Bill Morrow heard on many occasi ons he would never forget----such as when he was taken a boat down the Grand Canal and every boat that passed sounded its siren in salutation. Or when he shown over the great Nanjing bridge, built where the ferries used to carry trains across the Changjiang River. He was given a chair and asked to wait a little as darkness came on, then suddenly the whole bridge was outlined in lights.
C.Have you been at sea in a dense fog, when it seemed as if a tangible white darkness shut you in ,and the great ship, tense and anxious, groped her way toward the shore with plummet and sounding-line and you waited with beating heart for something to happen? I was like that ship before my education began, only I was without compass or sounding-line, and had no way of knowing how near the harbour was. ― light! Give me light!‖ was the wordless cry of my soul, and the light of love shone on me in that very hour.。